ITM Bachelor 3. Sem.
Intercultural Differences in Tourism Behaviour
“Culture is the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from those of another. Culture in this sense is a system of collectively held values.” -- Geert Hofstede
CULTURE AS AN ICEBERG
Sinus-Milieus mit ihren Definitionen:
A western idea:
The pyramid in Asian societies:
John Ap (2006)
Hofstede´s Five-Dimensions Model
Starting with IBM 1970s:
If all engineers are working in the same company and having the same education but still behave very differently, there must be cultural differences.
Culture, understood as the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms and traditions among members of an organisation or society, is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes members of one group or society from those of another.
Therefore culture is not a phenomenon in its own right. It is the difference perceived, and only then perceived, by one group when it comes into contact with and observes another one. It is important to point out that the idea of pure cultures meeting in intercultural exchanges without much knowledge about the other culture is outdated.
Today almost everybody outside a given culture has some information and knowledge about that culture, however superficial.
The foundation for most cross-cultural interpretation is the work of Geert Hofstede. He developed with the help of large-scale samples starting in the 1970s cultural index scores for five constructs:
Long term/Short term orientation
Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions with scores for China, Japan, USA and Switzerland (lowest possible score 1, highest possible score 100)
Critique of Hofstede:
Selecting Emerging markets: What we want to find out
Differences in travel purposes, travel forms, travel behaviour, travel expectations etc.
Selecting Emerging markets: First feedback looking for information / structuring research
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS FRAS