Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt
International Tourism Management


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 Global development of tourism
 pre-modern, modern, post-modern:
 Discovery - Acquisition - Invention




Post-modern travels - Invention


 Physical invention:


 Theme parks

 artificial Ski- and Diving Halls

 Film-induced travels



 Technical invention:

 "Death of Distance"

 Virtual travel

 Avatar travel (Example: Teddy Tours)



Do you possess a cuddly toy that desperately needs relaxation? Than this is your right spot!
The TEDDY TOUR BERLIN staff offers your teddy a week’s holiday including a guided tour of Berlin, picnic in Berlin's central park (Tiergarten) and comprehensive care by a qualified physiotherapist. On top of that, you’ll receive many beautiful holiday pictures as well as a holiday postcard and much more!




                                       Mental invention:

 End of division of working time/space and leisure time/space,

 end of division normal surroundings / strange surroundings,

 touristification of everyday life,

 Dark Tourism,

 Experimental Travel













Tourism <-> reality perception


Lahaina Town (from a Hawaii promotional website)

old fort

"Lahaina on Maui (Hawaii).
Consider the corner of the Old Fort that protected the royal capital in the 1820's. Sailors got angry at the missionaries for trying to cleaning things up.
They lobbed a cannon shot into town. So the fort got built. When sailing died out, it was torn down. This corner was rebuilt in 1964."



As a matter of fact, there never existed a Old Fort, as there also existed no royal capital in the 1820s (the only shortly before under King Kamehameha united Hawaiian islands did not have a concept of "capital" or any stone buildings).

The stones at the central square of Lahaina - despite the sign from the "Lahaina Historical Society" - are left-over props from a movie production of the 1960s.




Post-modern travels:

Most people living on the planet are hosts and tourists at different times. Tourism becomes universal

Tourism as main source of income for many regions. Traditions designed  after demand. At the same time change from destination to activity as object of travel

Short-time or long-time travels (days or years)

Invention of artificial places

End of split between travelling/holidays and living/working










 Summing up: Global development of tourism



(up to 18th c.)

(19-20th c.)

(21st c.)





Who is travelling?


very rich; adventurers, traders

growing numbers,

rich people plus
Europe / North America:
middle classes (19th c.)
working classes (20th c.)
Asia / South America:
middle classes (21th c.)

Almost everybody

People are host and guest at different times


Discovery, Distinction

Acquisition, Relaxation

Invention, Experience

Impact on destination

physically minimal
culturally medium

new infrastructure, touristification
impact also on source region

glocalisation of destinations

invention of artificial places

Development of tourism Industry

almost not existing

strong growth



long time
(months, years)

medium length (weeks, months)

short (days) or long (years)

Relation to daily life

Travel part of life

Clear split between working time and leisure time/tourism

Travel part of life

 ca. 2060 End of Tourism




  Contact: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS
Bachelor and Master Program International Tourism Management, Office 2.018, Tel. 0481 8555-513