Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt
International Tourism Management



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ITM Master 1. Sem.
10117 Seminar
Theories and methods of tourism sciences

Tu 11:45-15:30 S5 / S16


Assignment paper

Hand-in before July 10th 2019

Paper app. 12 pages


Assignment Paper

Each participant define a research question based on the topics of overtourism, emerging tourism source markets or SDGs – or another tourism-related topic and develop a multi-methods research design including
-          Research question
-          Hypotheses
-          Discussion of methods used (at least two): Why use these methods and not other methods, which hypothesis can be answered based on the research with which method(s)
-          Approximation of time, funding and staff needed
-          Graph of work programme for project with explanations
-          Possible stakeholders interested in research results / possibly contributing to funding






“Once upon a time, I dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither and thither, to all intents and purposes a butterfly.

I was conscious only of my happiness as a butterfly, unaware that I was myself. Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again.

Now I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly, dreaming I am a man.”

庄子 or 莊子 Zhūangzi (c. 369 BCE - c. 286 BCE).
Zhuangzi, or “Master Zhuang” was, after Laozi,
one of the earliest thinkers to contribute to the philosophy that has come to be known as Daojia,
or Daoism.





9.4. Introduction
Global tourism in a nutshell
16.4. Some major tourism thinkers and the scientific approach they represent
30.4. Introduction Scientific Methods 1  veal01.pdf 
Topics for Assignment

28.5. Introduction Scientific Methods 2  veal-02.pdf
Discussion work on Assignments


4.6. Methods: Tourism Hyphen Method
Qualitative vs. quantitative approaches
11.6. Assignment Intermediate Presentation and discussion  
24.6. 10.00-13.15 h S19 Preparation Assignment Papers, Conclusion   

The Battle of Tourism Methods I: 

 Product Approach

The product approach involves the study of various tourism products and how they are produced, marketed, and consumed. For example, one might study an airline seat—how it is created, the people who are engaged in buying and selling it, how it is financed, how it is advertised, and so on. Repeating this procedure for rental cars, hotel rooms, meals, and other tourist services gives a full picture of the field.

Historical Approach

The historical approach is not widely used. It involves an analysis of tourism activities and institutions from an evolutionary angle. It searches for the cause of innovations, their growth or decline, and shifts in interest. Modern tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, this approach has its usefulness only for the last two centuries.

Managerial Approach

The managerial approach is firm-oriented (microeconomic), focusing on the management activities necessary to operate a tourist enterprise, such as planning, research, pricing, advertising, control, and the like. It is a popular approach, using insights gleaned from other approaches and disciplines. Products change, institutions change, and society changes; this means that managerial objectives and procedures must be geared to change to meet shifts in the tourism environment.

Economic Approach

Because of its importance to both domestic and world economies, tourism has been examined closely by economists, who focus on supply, demand, balance of payments, foreign exchange, employment, expenditures, development, multipliers, and other economic factors. This approach is useful in providing a framework for analyzing tourism and its contributions to a country’s economy and economic development. The disadvantage of the economic approach is that whereas tourism is an important economic phenomenon, it has noneconomic impacts as well. The economic approach does not usually pay adequate attention to the environmental, cultural, psychological, sociological, and anthropological approaches.

Sociological Approach

Tourism tends to be a social activity. Consequently, it has attracted the attention of sociologists, who have studied the tourism behavior of individuals and groups of people and the impact of tourism on society. This approach examines social classes, habits, and customs of both hosts and guests. The sociology of leisure is a relatively undeveloped field, but it shows promise of progressing rapidly and becoming more widely used. As tourism continues to make a massive impact on society, it needs to be studied more and more from a social point of view.

Geographical Approach

Geography is a wide-ranging discipline, so it is natural that geographers should be interested in tourism and its spatial aspects. The geographer specializes in the study of location, environment, climate, landscape, and economic aspects.

The geographer’s approach to tourism sheds light on the location of tourist areas, the movements of people created by tourism locales, the changes that tourism brings to the landscape in the form of tourism facilities, dispersion of tourism development, physical planning, and economic, social, and cultural problems. Because tourism touches geography at so many points, geographers have investigated the area thoroughly. The geographers’ approach encompasses land use, economic aspects, demographic impacts, and cultural problems. Recreational geography is a common course title used by geographers studying this specialty.

Interdisciplinary Approaches

Tourism embraces virtually all aspects of our society. We have cultural and heritage tourism, which calls for an anthropological approach. Because people behave in different ways and travel for different reasons, it is necessary to use a psychological approach to determine the best way to promote and market tourism products. Because tourists cross borders and require passports and visas from government offices, and because most countries have government-operated tourism development departments, we find that political institutions are involved and are calling for a political science approach. Any industry that becomes an economic giant affecting the lives of many people attracts the attention of legislative bodies which create the laws, regulations, and legal environment in which the tourist industry must operate; so we also have a legal approach. The great importance of transportation suggests passenger transportation as another approach. The fact simply is that tourism is so vast, so complex, and so multifaceted that it is necessary to have a number of approaches to studying the field, each geared to a somewhat different task or objective.

The Battle of Tourism Methods II: 

walle Qualitative/Quantitative

Introduction Prof. Arlt:

  Tourism Scientist.
  Born in West-Berlin 1957, married to Swiss novelist, no kids
  Living in Hamburg
  Studies in Berlin, Taiwan, Hong Kong
  M.A. Sinology, PhD Political Sciences FU Berlin

  Former owner of specialized tour operator companies
  (Outbound/Inbound East Asia <-> Europe)
  Consultant for European companies (Transport, Logistics) in China
  Organizer of fairs and exhibitions in East Asia and in Europe
  Publisher, bookseller, journalist

  1997-2001 lecturer (Intercultural Management, Tourism) in Europe and East Asia
  2002-2007 professor for Leisure and Tourism Management (FH Stralsund)
  Since 2008 professor for International Tourism Management (FH Westküste)

  Fellow of Royal Geographical Society (London) FRGS
Fellow of Royal Asiatic Society (London) FRAS

  Research Fellow of Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (Tokyo)
  Research Fellow of the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Study and Training of Leisure of
  Zhejiang University (Hangzhou/China)

   Board member and member HRD committee PATA Pacific Asia Travel Association(Bangkok) 
   Vice President Western Europe ITSA International Tourism Studies Association (Beijing/Greenwich)
   Fellow of International Association of China Tourism Studies (Guangzhou)
   Member of UNWTO Expert Panel (Madrid)
   Member of Expert Committee World Tourism Cities Federation (Beijing)
   Member of Friends of Europe Think Tank (Brussels)

  Director of China Outbound Tourism Research Institute (COTRI) 

  Adjunct professor at Yanbian University of Science and Technology (Yanji/China)
  Visiting professor at Ningbo University (Ningbo/China)
  Visiting professor at University of Sunderland (Sunderland/UK)
  Visiting professor at Leeds Beckett University (Leeds/UK)
  Adjunct professor at Tai Poutini University (Greymouth/NZ)

   Visiting Researcher University of Brighton (UK)
  Visiting Researcher Curtin University (Perth/Australia)






Introduction Participants


- Experiences in Tourism

- Planned Branch / Job / PhD after MA

- Dream job




Where have we been already?




Global Tourism Development

























Global GDP over last 2000 years:











 Tourism studies

The beginnings of a scientific treatment of tourism are connected to monetary and statistical approaches and a Central European view.

The oldest major texts from Germany, Guyer-Feuler: Beiträge zu einer Statistik des Fremdenverkehrs, (1895), Stradner: Der Fremdenverkehr (1905) and Schullern zu Schrattenhofen: Fremdenverkehr und Volkswirtschaft (1911) concentrated on economic aspects as did the early Italian text of Bodio: Sul movimento dei forestieri in Italia e sul denaro che vi spendono (1899) and the first major French text of Picard: L’Industrie du Voyageur (1911).

At the end of the 1920s the economist Robert Glücksmann started in Berlin his Archiv für Fremdenverkehr as a periodical publication of his private tourism research institute. Accordingly in the 1920s at several universities in Austria and Switzerland, ‘the first European chairs and research programmes were an outgrowth of departments of economics and, to a lesser extent, the field of economic geography’ (Hall 2005: 7).

While the war stopped tourism and tourism science development in many countries and Glücksmann’s ‘Jewish’ institute had to close in Nazi Germany, in Switzerland the development continued. In 1941 in Professor Krapf in Berne started the Forschungsinstitut für Fremdenverkehr, while in St Gallen Professor Hunziker became the first director of the Seminar für Fremdenverkehr.

Tourism research in the second half of the twentieth century was – and still is today – dominated by an Anglo-Saxon point of view from researchers working out of North America, Great Britain or Australia and New Zealand. The impact from other areas is minimal, especially if the publications are not in English.

For the 21st century, some Asian scholars claim that the "third wave" of tourism science will be, after Europe and North America, now Asia.


Disciplines engaged in tourism sciences are no longer restricted to economics and geography but have multiplied, even though the quality and depth of tourism research is sharply criticized within the guild.

Cooper (2003b) finds four problems still existing in 2003 - and they are still today:
- conceptual weakness and fuzziness,
- a spread of topics and a lack of focus,
- a predominance of one-off atheoretical case studies, and
- difficulties with access to quality large-scale data sources.


 - Disciplinary approaches to tourism

Economics (Example: Economic contribution, costs and benefits)
 Law (legal framework)
  Marketing (marketing channels, consumer behaviour)
   Management (Operations, service, Human Resource Management)
    Finance&Accounting (Feasibility, real estate)
     Hospitality (accomodation, convention, gastronomy, casinos)
      Architecture&Design (landscape architecture, heritage)
       Transport/Mobility studies (infrastructure)
        Leisure studies (activities, policies, relation to tourism)
         Ecology (impact on nature, national parks)
          Geography (spatial patterns, movement of people)
           Urban&regional planning (tourism development studies)
            Political analysis (decision-making, participation)
             Sociology (tourism&contemporary society, segmentation)
              Cultural studies (transnationalism)
               Anthropology (host and guest, social impact)
                Psychology (why people travel, tourist behaviour) etc.



Tourism studies started in a big way only in the 1980s.

Most of the about 20 study programs for tourism in Germany are only 15 or even less than 10 years old.


"Tourism Science" as a discipline is not yet well established.

Many still only consider it as a "hyphenated" science Bindestrich-Wissenschaft (tourism-geography, tourism-sociology...)






Global development of tourism and work in tourism
 pre-modern -> modern   -> post-modern
 Discovery -> Acquisition -> Invention












(up to 18th c.)

(19-20th c.)

(21st c.)





Who is travelling?

few very rich; adventurers, traders

growing numbers, rich people plus
- Europe / North America:
middle classes (19th c.)
working classes (20th c.)
- Asia / South America:
middle classes (21th c.)

Almost everybody (app. 4 out 7 billion)

People are host and guest at different times


Discovery, Distinction

Acquisition, Relaxation

Invention, Experience

Impact on destination

physically minimal
culturally medium

new infrastructure, touristification
impact also on source region

glocalisation of destinations

invention of artificial places

Development of tourism Industry

almost not existing

strong growth



long time
(months, years)

medium length (weeks, months)

short (days) or long (years)

Relation to daily life

Travel part of life

Clear split between working time and leisure time/tourism

Travel part of life

Consequences for jobs in tourism

Almost no specific jobs in travel and tourism

Development of specific jobs, mostly organisation of travel and sightseeing

Diversification and segmentation of markets. Development of complex labour market and job structure

Traveller bring their own HRM infrastructure

Minimum specialisation

Travel and Tourism as working field not existing (no guilds, etc.)

Already bad image (Wirtshaus connected to crime and vice)

Specific infrastructure and purpose-build structures developed

Traveller grow in numbers, but clear differentiation between top and bottom market, no middle market before app. 1970s

Beginning internationalisation of workforce


Almost everybody plays both roles of host and guest at different times Tourism globally important economic factor

High specialisation of products and diversification of jobs

Strong internationalisation of workforce





World touristiness map: World map color-coded by level of touristiness. Yellow indicates high touristiness, red medium touristiness, and blue low touristiness. Areas having no Panoramio photos at all are grey. The analysis takes into account how many photos and by how many authors there are in a given area.










Some major thinkers in the field of tourism







 Dean MacCannell



1. Modernity and the Production of Touristic Experiences
2. Sightseeing and Social Structure
3. The Paris Case: Origins of Alienated Leisure
4. The Other Attractions
5. Staged Authenticity
6. A Semiotic of Attraction
7. The Ethnomethodology of Sightseers
8. Structure, Genuine and Spurious
9. On Theory, Methods, and Application




John Urry





Michael Hall





Richard Butler





Alain de Botton






Valene Smith














































  Contact: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS
Bachelor and Master Program International Tourism Management, Office Schanzenstrasse 8, Tel. 0481 8555-513